Sound of Khartoum

The production team for this episode are:

Researchers and Producers: Leena Shibeika, Almuzn MohamedElhassan, Mai Abusalih, and Alrassa.

Script Writers: Almuzn Mohamedelhassan and Mohammed Abdelazaaiz.

Presenters: Almuzn Mohamedelhassan and Mohammed Abdelazaaiz.

Music: Zain Records.

Audio Mixing: Tariq Suliman.

Project Manager: Zainab Gaafar.

Technical assistance: elMastaba TV.

Recording studio: Rift Digital Lab.

About the episode:

This episode gives an overview of the alternative music scene in Khartoum within the past 60 years by discussing the diverse influences leading to the emergence and development of Jazz, Zannig, and Rap musical genres in the city. We review the intersections of some of these genres with social class and politics in Khartoum and how they’ve become cultural products that were minimally represented and were not allowed to be fully legitimized by official media channels and institutions, thus they’ve historically been marginalized.

Interviewed in this episode are some of Sudan’s pioneer artists in Jazz and Zannig and through their stories, we discuss the cultural ‘otherization’ and social stigma imposed by the dominant elites against these genres. Despite these circumstances, we explore the process through which Jazz, Zannig, and Rap have become a part of the mainstream music scene in Sudan by utilizing alternative platforms such as the internet and social media.

Through this podcast, we invite Sudan’s youth to participate in the documentation and support of alternative music by any means possible.

We Dedicate this episode to the soul of the legendary Jazz singer and artist, Kamal Keila.

Episode playlist plus MORE!

Compiled and prepared by: Almuzn M. and Mohammed A.

This podcast is accompanied with a playlist of all the music featured in the podcast as well as an extensive list of different online resources of online interviews, archives and books, and articles on Jazz, Zanniq, and Rap.

First, here is a collection of songs, performances, and images.


Sharhabeel Ahmed on the left and Kamal Keila on the right at the first Jazz Festival in Khartoum in 1987. Source: Personal Collection of Sharhabeel Ahmed via Habibi Funk.

Kamal Keila

Listen to Kamal Kiela ’s Album: Muslims and Christians. As well as listen to his special singles featured on the podcast:

Osman Alamo:

Listen to these songs by the legendary Osman Alamo:

Shahabiel Ahmed:

Also listen to other songs by The king of Sudanese Jazz, Shahabiel Ahmed:

The Scorpions:

Find The Scorpions’ Album : Jazz Jazz Jazz which include these songs:

  • Saat Alfarah
  • Farrah Galbi Aljadeed (featured on the podcast).
  • Kaif Halo
  • Hilwa ya Amoora

Listen to Ya Amali O Noor Ayni and watch their live show in Kuwait in the 1980s.

The Scorpions Band at the Crazy Horse Casino in Almogran. Source: taken from the Habibi Funk archive.
The Scorpions Band at the Crazy Horse Casino in Almogran.Source: taken from the Habibi Funk archive.
The Scorpions Band at the Crazy Horse Casino in Almogran. This image shows one the left Amir Nassir known as Amir Saxophone featured on the podcast.Source: taken from the Habibi Funk archive.

Salah Bashir, known by Salah Brown!

Find his songs on The Blue Nile Sudanese songs Library by the name Salah Brown: including these songs:

  • Ouno bi Alrida Halkana
  • Tala’a algamar
  • Konta ma’a Aish
  • Alikhider Jaa
  • Seed Alyoun

Also watch his special performance of his song Altelophone, featured on the podcast.

Salah Brown. 2016. Source: Alhaj, Abdalsalam. Goethe-Institut, Khartoum. Goethe-Institut facebook

And finally, here is a curated list of the most famous Sudanese Jazz bands and singers:

Jazz Aldoyoum Music Band:

Adwaa Bahri Music Band on :

William Andre’s “Kifaya Mozah” featured on the podcast:


First Generation of Zanniq Artists

First, Listen to Alrassa Pre-Zannig curated playlist on soundcloud!

Here is our curated list of Zanniq Artists and musicians!

Mohamed “The Maestro” Hamed

Najat Ghurza

Mujahid Sharshar

Buthaina Abbas

Listen to Buthaina’s “Jabra” with the famous musician Mohamed Hamed featured on the podcast.

Also listen to other songs by Buthina:

Anwar 9


Ayman Alrubo

First, watch the legendary Alrubo on his public concert at Atabara here:

Here are other Soloa’at by Alrubo:

Listen to other Zannig singers and artists!



Noona Al3ankabouta

Mawada Alahaneena

Tarig Bunna

Rasha Alzonjya


Also listen to other Sola’at by Taso here:

Ali Tabashi


Basheer Kai

Finally, here are songs by the most recent Zannig singers:

Marwa Al-duwaliyya

Taghreed Al-Oshara

Aisha Aljabal!


Here is a collection of songs and performances by the most known Rappers on the Sudanese scenes.

Born In Black.

Here’s one of the first appearances of Sudanese rappers on Sudan’s TV.

Also listen to BIB’s Ghetto Birds with Moyad from Sudanese Band.

Listen also to :


Alsadig Sideeg

  • Al Fagr with Omer Snoop, Khaled aka Zangoola, Willy, and Mo Ali aka DMF

Khalid Zangoola

DZA the Dissenter

The Circle


Listen to Flipper’s ‘Gorasa’ featured on the podcast:

Music 56

Ali GX

Khwal Miflimeen



Listen to his songs ‘Kul Al Khir’ featured on the podcast:


  • GMR with Seido Simba and Rotation
  • Faham with Rotation

B Jr aka Lil Bani




Thinking about female rappers? Listen to Selma-I on her two rap songs:

Also listen to:

Bric Man





Omer Dafencii

BBN Booda


We end our playlist with ‘Salimmik’ by Maha Jafaar, Flippter, and Nejeery.

Extra Resources

Online Interviews

Here is an excessive list of online interviews and television talk show programs that feature some of the singers and musicians mentioned in the episode.

Online Archives.

During our research, we have come across many efforts to archive, digitize, and redistribute Sudanese music. We have decided to dedicate this space to highlight their efforts.





Interesting Reads:

Here are some references, including articles and books, that discuss about Sudanese music that you might find interesting!